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i'm interested in attending the Stanford University Pow Wow this year for the 1st time, because i'm part native american + learning about my ancestry to connect mod*tot + pass on to our future generations. so i googled + got a wake up call about the native Gold Rush genocide on websites of Stanford, Museum of California, California Missions, PBS...
California Native American History + Stanford University
"California Indians had been here for more than 10,000 years before the Gold Rush.
They encountered successive waves of explorers, colonizers, and immigrants, including Spanish missionaries, Mexican and Californio rancheros, Russian hunters, and American trappers, traders and farmers." museumca.org/goldrush/fever
Spaniards set up Mission System to control land, ports and natives
"In their missionary zeal, the priests set out to subjugate the Indian people by exploiting their labor, and changing their traditional culture. Disease, abuse, and the destruction of their environment spelled disaster. In the 1st 10 years of the mission system, over 16,000 Indians were baptized and over 9,000 of those died." Museum of California
1769 1st automobile designed as steam trolly History_of_the_automobile
"By 1817, the mortality rate among the mission Indians had risen to nearly 90%." Museum of California
1846 United States declares war on Mexico in California
1848 gold discovered, Mexico cedes California to the United States
4,000 Colonizers + 300,000 Natives lived in California.
1849 influx of 100,000s of colonizers, fortune hunters, + military
1850 California becomes 31st state of the United States of America
1850 California state passed Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. "This law allowed any settler to enslave a Native American child with the permission of the parents, or if the child was orphaned. Since Native Americans weren't allowed to testify in court against US Citizens, this Indian Slave Act also gave settlers free reign to kidnap, sell + purchase Native American children and adults. Settlers could declare any adult native a vagrant and claim them as their slave."
"A war of extermination will continue to be waged between the two races until the Indian race becomes extinct." The-Great-California-Genocide
"Indian hunters could receive compensation for their actions. Many communities through Gold Rush California offered bounties for Indian heads, Indian scalps, or Indian ears. And so the Indian raiders could bring the evidence of their kill in, and receive compensation. Furthermore, the state of California passed legislation authorizing more than a million dollars for the reimbursement of additional expenses that the Indian hunters may have incurred. And then that was passed on to the federal Congress, where Congress passed legislation also authorizing additional federal funds for this purpose. So what we have beginning in California during the Gold Rush, quite clearly, was a case of genocide, mass murder that was legalized and publicly subsidized." pbs.org/goldrush/natives
"No group of people faced more prejudice and discrimination than California's native people. In the onslaught of the Gold Rush and the American settlement, which followed, many Indian tribes were forced from their ancestral lands. The natural resources they depended upon for food and shelter were destroyed. Laws were enacted that prevented them from voting, owning property or weapons of any kind, serving on a jury, or testifying in a court of law. Eventually there were bounties placed on their heads, and legally-sanctioned massacres of defenseless villages. The editor of the San Francisco Bulletin spoke for most white Americans: It is a painful necessity of advancing civilization that the Indians should gradually disappear.
Ultimately, there was an organized campaign that was explicitly designed to hunt and kill Indians, with bounties placed on their heads. The expenses of these paramilitary efforts were covered by the federal government and by the sale of state bonds." Museum of California
1861 Governor of California, Amasa Leland Stanford was an American tycoon, industrialist, politician who emigrated to California at the time of the Gold Rush from New York. He was a lawyer, merchant, executive, wholesaler + politician. Stanford's global business + political empire wielded tremendous power in California. Many considered Stanford a Robber Baron."
wikipedia/Leland_Stanford image: ucpresse
1861 Amasa Leland Stanford was President of Central Pacific Railroad
1862 Governor of California, Amasa Leland Stanford, declared In a message to the legislature, “The presence of numbers of that degraded and distinct people would exercise a deleterious effect upon the superior race.” wikipedia/Leland_Stanford
"By 1866, newspaper articles endorsed the action. The Chico Courant proclaimed: It has become a question of extermination now. It is a mercy to the red devils to exterminate them. Treaties are played out. There is only one kind of treaty that is effective - cold lead." Museum of California
1874 Amasa Leland Stanford, President of Occidental Oriental Steamship Company, between California, Japan, China, India, Phillipines, Australasia + Hawaii
1885 Amasa Leland Stanford serves as Senator from California next 8 years
1885 Amasa Leland Stanford, President Southern Pacific_Railroad next 8 years
1890 Amasa Leland Stanford continues as Senator from California until 1893
1891 Stanford University opens as private research school
1898 Southern Pacific Railroad starts publishing Sunset Magazine
1900 California Indians nearly extinct: population reduced to 16,000 Museum of California
1900 United States of America enters World War I
1929 Stanford University begins using "Indian" as a mascot for athletic teams
California Native American tribes are terminated and dissolved by the State and Federal government, so tribes have no right to own tribal land.
Devestating Depression era Dustbowl forces exodus of impoverished Native Americans from Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Native Americans who come to California face worst oppression + discrimination of any ethnic group in United States history.
1949 Stanford Indian mascot burned in effigy by University of California
Construction boom in post-World War II years results in destruction of Native American sites in Palo Alto, East Palo Alto, Mountain View, and the East Bay, subsidized by low-cost mortgages for war veterans. Construction boom at Stanford lasts 10 years, fueled by government research funding + GI Bill grants paying tuition + expenses of war veterans. sunset-magazine.stanford.edu
1969: Alcatraz Occupation, protest for Native American rights, lasts 19 months. benefit concert for Alcatraz Occupation held at Stanford Chapel
Stanford American Indian Organization (SAIO) forms
1970: 25 Native Americans enroll at Stanford.
SAIO members petition for removal of Stanford's Indian mascot—both the logo (as false image of the American Indian) + the man mascot (whose live performances at sporting events were a mocked Native American religious practices)
1971 1st Stanford Pow Wow
1972 removal of Indian mascot by Stanford President, Trustees + ASSU
1973 "Half Breed" song + Barbie: pop culture icon Cher
1974 Native American Cultural Center opens
1975 Stanford University students held an election to choose a new mascot + voted for Robber Barons (referring to Amasa Leland Stanford). Stanford's administration refused to implement the vote. Stanford teams remain without a mascot, instead using the color Red.
1978 American Indian Movement co-founder teaches a Stanford Workshop on Social and Political Issues course: American Indian Activism.
1981 7 new Native American undergraduates enroll at Stanford.
1984 68 Native Americans counted among the students at Stanford.
1986 Native American student + community organizations begin to form under SAIO, i.e., American Indian Science and Engineering Society chapter
1987 SAIO unites with BSU, MEChA + AASA to form the Rainbow Coalition
1988 American Indian Program staff (3)
1990 The Native American Graves Protection + Repatriation Act is passed
Stanford gives the remains of 550 human beings from its anthropological collections to their Ohlone/Costanoan descendants for reburial.
1992 1st Native American studies professor hired
1993 Stanford administration suggests the American Indian and Alaska Native program merge with the Asian Activities Center. Students unite and host a public forum to demonstrate they are distinct communities.
1995 Native Hawaiians added to American Indian, Alaska Native Program
1997 Native American Studies major begins at Stanford University!
(to be continued....
by ~mod*mom~ at 13.4.14 Â©